Central African Republic Civil War / Burgeroorlog in de Centraal-Afrikaanse Republiek
10 december 2012 - 31 december 2023
In the preceding Central African Republic Bush War (2004–2007), the government of President François Bozizé fought with rebels until a peace agreement in 2007. The current conflict arose when a new coalition of varied rebel groups, known as Séléka, accused the government of failing to abide by the peace agreements, captured many towns in 2012 and seized the capital in 2013. Bozizé fled the country, and the rebel leader Michel Djotodia declared himself president. Renewed fighting began between Séléka and militias opposed to them called anti-balaka. In September 2013, President Djotodia disbanded the Séléka coalition, which had lost its unity after taking power, and resigned in 2014. He was replaced by Catherine Samba-Panza, but the conflict continued.
In July 2014, ex-Séléka factions and anti-balaka representatives signed a ceasefire agreement. By the end of 2014, the country was de facto partitioned with the anti-Balaka controlling the south and west, from which most Muslims had evacuated, and ex-Seleka groups controlling the north and east. Faustin-Archange Touadéra who was elected President in 2016 ran and won the 2020 election that triggered the main rebel factions to form an alliance opposed to the election called the Coalition of Patriots for Change, which was allegedly supported by former President Bozize. Peacekeeping largely transitioned from the ECCAS led MICOPAX to the African Union led MISCA to the United Nations led MINUSCA while the French peacekeeping mission was known as Operation Sangaris.
Much of the tension is over religious identity between Muslim Séléka fighters and Christian anti-balaka and ethnic differences among ex-Séléka factions and historical antagonism between agriculturalists, who largely comprise anti-balaka, and nomadic groups, who constitute most Séléka fighters. Other contributing factors include the struggle for control of diamonds and other resources in the resource rich country and for influence among regional powers such as Chad, Sudan and Rwanda and international powers such as France and Russia. More than 1.1 million people have fled their homes in a country of about 5 million people, the highest ever recorded in the country.